Low wages also make it difficult for workers to afford the basics like decent housing, nutritious food, and reliable transportation. These include expanding tax credits for low-wage workers and thereby boosting their effective take-home pay. These tax credits not only reduce economic hardship but also have long-term positive effects on the earnings and employment prospects of children in these families, research shows. Investing in affordable child care and expanding paid leave also can help parents work and remain connected to their jobs when they need time off for the birth of a child or other family medical issue.
This was only 5. Over the last five decades, the federal government has allowed inflation to erode the value of the minimum wage by approximately 27 percent. The failure of economic growth to adequately reach low-wage workers disproportionately affects women — especially Latinas — and African Americans. People earning at or below the minimum wage make up a larger share of these communities than of other communities.
The common claim that raising the minimum wage sharply reduces employment for low-wage workers is one of the most extensively studied issues in empirical economics. The bulk of the evidence indicates that such impacts on employment for the size of past minimum-wage increases are modest if they exist at all, and that such wage increases would provide a net earnings gain to low-wage workers as a group and thus serve as a policy tool that pushes back against rising inequality.
Data are not presented for American Indians in this table.
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Upjohn Institute Press, pp. For families with very low earnings, the EITC rises as earnings increase, which encourages families to go to work and to work more hours when possible. The EITC also helps women and communities of color — two groups that disproportionately work in low-wage jobs — share more fully in economic growth. But low-income childless workers — that is, adults without minor children and non-custodial parents — receive little from the EITC see Figure 4.
Partly as a result, childless workers are the sole group that the federal tax system taxes deeper into poverty.
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Moreover, some leading experts believe that an expanded EITC for these workers would also help address some of the challenges that less-educated young people particularly young African American men face, including low and falling labor-force participation rates and high incarceration rates. Child care assistance is key to helping parents work when their earnings are too low to afford the high cost of care.
This additional funding may expand access to more than , children and help states meet the new quality standards outlined in the child care reauthorization legislation,  but millions of children who need child care assistance will remain unable to access it due to insufficient funding. When parents are asked why they are searching for early care and education — including child care — they cite employment as the top reason.
Paid leave may boost employment, earnings, and the number of hours worked, research shows. Department of Labor, U. Department of Commerce, U. Department of Education, and U.
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Non-traditional college student is defined as people who dropped out of high school and earned a GED and individuals aged 25 to Lindsay Chase-Lansdale et al. Child care costs vary dramatically across regions and states. Lynette Fraga et al. Promising policy ideas include: Expanding training programs that have a track record of preparing disadvantaged workers for in-demand jobs and increasing employment and earnings.
Increasing work opportunities for people with significant employment barriers. Even in good economic times, some individuals who want to work are essentially shut out of the labor market due to barriers that can complicate their ability to find and keep a job, especially one that pays decent wages. Subsidized employment programs with support services for disadvantaged workers, programs that provide on-site employment and training programs for public housing residents, and programs that provide life skills training have been shown to improve work rates, earnings, or both.
Investing in work supports and benefits that boost wages and make jobs more stable. Millions of workers are in jobs that provide low pay, have unpredictable schedules, and lack key benefits such as paid sick leave. Expand Evidence-Based Programs That Build Skills and Increase Education To prepare unemployed and disadvantaged workers to compete in the labor market, policymakers should expand training programs that have a track record of preparing participants for in-demand jobs and increasing employment and earnings.
The following are examples of sectoral training programs that have been shown to be effective with low-income, less-skilled participants: Project QUEST Quality Employment Through Skills Training is a one- to two-year program that supports training in multiple sectors in San Antonio, Texas, including health care, information technology IT , and trades such as welding and mechanics. Researchers evaluated participants pursuing the health care track. Participants were also nearly 15 percentage points likelier to be engaged in year-round work and were less likely to report trouble affording expenses such as rent and utilities.
The program offered students simultaneous intensive services, including remedial instruction, basic education training, counseling, weekly meetings dedicated to building life skills, and job placement assistance. Participants also received referrals to agencies for help with child care, food, transportation, and other services on an as-needed basis. This program provides evidence suggesting that what are known as career pathway programs may boost credential attainment and employment.
Community colleges provide the training, and parents receive career coaching, financial incentives for educational advancement, and full-day early care and education for their children. Year Up is a workplace learning program in more than a dozen cities that provides low-income youth who have completed high school or a GED with six months of technical skills training followed by a six-month internship with major companies such as eBay and Sony.
Training and internships are in high-demand fields such as finance and IT. Participants receive extensive support services, including staff advisors, mentors, tutors, and peer support. An evaluation of the program in Boston, New York City, and Providence, Rhode Island, showed that in the second year following program participation, Year Up participants who were randomly assigned to the program had higher hourly wages and annual earnings 30 percent higher than the control group, though employment rates between the two groups were nearly equal. Year Up is one of nine career pathway programs undergoing evaluation and results will indicate whether these earnings gains persist over four years.
The program provides tuition waivers, transportation assistance, personalized student support services, special seminars in topics such as goal setting and study skills, and intentional alignment and scheduling of courses to facilitate attendance. ASAP targeted students who are required to take developmental courses to build reading, writing, or math skills and almost doubled their three-year graduation rates. Figure 1. Figure 2.
Figure 3. Figure 4. PDF of this report 14 pp. Four appendices highlight research design, sample description, job initiative site comparison, and job and wage progression charts. Contains 99 references. Transmitting values about education : a comparison of black teen mothers and their nonparent peers by Naomi Farber 1 edition published in in English and held by 1 WorldCat member library worldwide.
Schools, teachers, and their work : essays on attitudes and responses to organizational change by Marlene Walk Book 1 edition published in in English and held by 1 WorldCat member library worldwide Organizational change has become an integral part of work organizations, given the complex, uncertain, unpredictable, and at times contradictory environment in which they operate.
Whereas most of the research on organizational change has focused on how organizations prepare for, implement and react to organizational change, systematic research on employees' reactions to organizational change has only recently started to emerge. Individuals, however, play a key role in implementing change, making this stream of research an important endeavor.
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Looking a large-scale policy change in the education sector, this mixed-methods dissertation seeks to better understand 1 employees' meaning of work under conditions of radical organizational change, 2 employees' reactions to this externally imposed change, and 3 the multilevel dynamics between employees and their leaders. Two aspects of job crafting--internal and structural job crafting--however are differently related to work-related and individual-level change consequences. Whereas structural job crafting is negatively related to burnout and positively related to job satisfaction, the opposite is the case for internal job crafting.
However, contrary to my hypothesis, followers are more likely to display resistance intentions in cases when their leaders display positive attitudes toward the change content. Taken together the three stand-alone essays provide insights into employees' reactions following a large-scale policy implementation in the education sector and the findings contribute to the theory, policy, and practice of employee behavior during organizational change.
Parents' work, depressive symptoms, children, and family economic mobility : what can ethnography tell us? These topics have occupied the attention of scholars and policy makers in recent years, particularly as they pertain to single mothers in the context of welfare reform. Broadening this landscape, findings from longitudinal, multicity ethnographic research reveal that low-income fathers also experience depression or depressive symptoms that hinder family economic mobility.
Further, repeated scores from a community-based depressive symptoms measure embedded in the ethnographic inquiry show that the timing of parents' training and employment pathways, economic conditions, and policies in firms and children's schools intersect with parents' depressive symptoms or depression to affect mobility. Program and policy supports seem to mediate these intersecting mobility challenges. Audience Level.